[New publication] Inaugural Issue of Translation, Cognition & Behavior: Volume 1, Issue 1, 2018
Order Effects in the Translation Process, by Christopher D. Mellinger and Thomas A. Hanson
ABSTRACT: This study investigates how the order in which various translation memory match-types occur in a target language version of a text may influence translator behavior and cognition. Empirical research designs often attempt to mitigate for possible confounds from order effects, yet explicit recognition of the time-series nature of data collection can yield a better understanding of the influence that translation technologies have on the translation task. Data are drawn from a previous study that investigated technical, temporal, and cognitive effort in a translation memory environment, and here we analyze the time-series data for potential order effects. Findings show that order effects are present in some instances during the sequential progression through the target text, particularly with respect to technical and cognitive effort. Results are also suggestive of a potential first impression effect.
Meaning and Words in the Conference Interpreter’s mind, by Agnieszka Chmiel
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine how interpreter training and experience influence word recognition and cross-linguistic connections in the bilingual mental lexicon. Sixty-eight professional interpreters, interpreter trainees (tested at the beginning and end of their training) and bilingual controls were asked to complete a semantic priming study. Priming is a psycholinguistic research method used to examine connections between words and languages in the mind. Data analysis conducted by means of linear mixed models revealed that advanced trainees recognised words faster than beginners, but were not outperformed by professionals. A priming effect was found only in the L1-L2 direction, suggesting similar asymmetries between languages irrespective of the interpreting experience. It is the first study to adopt a priming paradigm and a longitudinal design to examine the interpreters’ mental lexicon. The study shows that word recognition is faster due to interpreter training, but is not modulated further by interpreting experience.
Lexical Access in Trilinguals, by Xavier Aparicio and Jean-Marc Lavaur
ABSTRACT: An original double-masked translation priming study investigates how trilingual translation trainees process their non-dominant languages (L2 and L3) and how these languages influence one another. We recruited 24 French (L1)- English (L2)- Spanish (L3) unbalanced trilinguals to perform lexical decision tasks in their L2 and L3. Target words were preceded by two primes, which were either the same word (repetition), a translation in one language, translations in two languages or unrelated words (in one or two languages). The results highlighted strong translation priming effects, with a repetition effect in both target languages. In addition, when the translation primes belonged to the other non-dominant language, reaction times (RTs) were slower in comparison to semantically unrelated primes in the same priming language. When two different languages were presented as a prime, L1 primes were more efficient when presented as first prime. These results are in line with previous experiments on masked translation priming studies in trilinguals and suggest that the multilingual lexicon is mediated by the L1.
Investigating Problem-Solving Strategies of Translation Trainees with High and Low Levels of Self-Efficacy, by Roya Araghian, Behzad Ghonsooly and Afsaneh Ghanizadeh
ABSTRACT: Translatology adopts psychological and cognitive approaches to study the complex processes underlying translational phenomena. As such, it deals with both translations and the translators who produce them. The present study uses think-aloud protocols and keystroke logging to explore the impact of affective factors such as self-efficacy beliefs on the selection and application of translation problem-solving strategies by a group of trainee translators completing a translation task. Four translation trainees completed a Translation Self-efficacy Questionnaire. Participants with both high and low self-efficacy rankings were asked to translate a text using the Translog keylogger while simultaneously verbalizing their mental processes. Analysis of the verbal protocols indicated considerable differences within the group regarding the cognitive and metacognitive strategies that they chose to employ. The results suggested that low self-efficacy leads subjects to spend too much time translating, due to repeated attempts at production and extensive revision. Implications of the findings for translator training are discussed.
Decision-Making Processes in Direct and Inverse Translation Through Tetrospective Protocols, by Aline Ferreira, Alexandra Gottardo and John W. Schwieter
ABSTRACT: Metacognitive aspects of decision-making processes were investigated in eight professional translators who translated related and unrelated texts from L2 English into L1 Portuguese and also from L1 into L2. Retrospective protocols were recorded after each translation task. Verbal utterances were classified into two categories (problem identification and prospective solution) and each one was divided into several subcategories. The data analyses evaluated metacognitive activities during decision-making processes. Results suggest that noteworthy differences between direct and inverse translation can be assessed via retrospective protocols and that translator performance and behavior might be closely related to the source text.
The Effect of Explanatory Captions on the Reception of Foreign Audiovisual Products, by Binghan Zheng and Mingqing Xie
ABSTRACT: The present research triangulates questionnaire, retrospective interview and eyetracking data, aiming to investigate how Explanatory Captions (ECs) are received by different viewers with varied educational backgrounds, and whether or not the presence of ECs improves their understanding of the AV content. The results show that the provision of ECs, for a subtitled video in a foreign language, greatly increased positive cognitive effects on the viewers. Viewers tend to reduce time spent on viewing images, but invest additional processing effort on the ECs, although their allocation of processing effort on subtitles experienced little change. Furthermore, the eyetracking data suggest that most participants adopted a fixed reading pattern on subtitles and ECs when they appeared simultaneously, which could balance some of the negative impact of ECs on their viewing experience. The findings gained through this experimental research will provide some guidance and suggestions for subtitlers when preparing subtitles and ECs.
Translation Competence from the Acquisition Point of View, by Minna Kumpulainen
ABSTRACT: This article discusses translation competence (TC) and its acquisition, introducing a framework, which depicts TC as a situation-based construct with interlingual skills at its core. In this framework, translation is defined as any mediation between different languages and cultures, from everyday conversations to professional translation practise. This view is assumed to reflect the acquisition of TC (ATC), since a rudimentary ability to mediate between two languages can be regarded as the first step towards professional translation skills. The model is built around interlingual text production skills, and it conceptualizes various types of extra-linguistic knowledge as task-specific: the extent to which they are needed in translation is situation-bound. The framework is designed to be used as a theoretical framework in empirical studies into ATC, an example of which is presented in the article.
The Development of the TPR-DB as Grounded Theory Method, by Michael Carl and Moritz Schaeffer
ABSTRACT: Initial versions of the translation process research database (TPR-DB), were released around 2011 in an attempt to integrate translation process data from several until then individually collected and scattered translation research projects. While the earlier individual studies had a clear focus on quantitative assessment of well-defined research questions on cognitive processes in human translation production, the integration of the data into the TPR-DB allowed for broader qualitative and exploratory research which has led to new codes, categories and research themes. In a constant effort to develop and refine the emerging concepts and categories and to validate the developing theories, the TPR-DB has been extended with further translation studies in different languages and translation modes. In this respect, it shares many features with Grounded Theory Method. This method was discovered in 1967 and used in qualitative research in social science ad many other research areas. We analyze the TPR-DB development as a Grounded Theory Method.